Physicians treat and prevent human illness, disease and injury. There are two types of physicians: the MD (Doctor of Medicine) and the DO (Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine). The practice of medicine includes disease prevention and health education, and the use of accepted methods of medical treatment, including pharmaceutical agents and surgical procedures.
Medical school programs are four years in length. At the end of four years, allopathic institutions grant the M.D. degree and osteopathic institutions grant the D.O. degree.
Additional graduate medical education may range from 3-7 years, depending on the specialty selected. Successful completion of national boards is required for certification prior to licensure.
The minimum entrance requirement for medical or osteopathic schools is four years of college with specific core science courses. Student applicants are required to complete the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) as a prerequisite for admission. The majority of the U.S. colleges of medicine participate in a centralized application service. AMCAS (The American College Application Service) services allopathic (MD) institutions and AACOMAS (American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine Application Service) services osteopathic institutions (DO). Admission to a medical school generally requires volunteer or paid experience in a health care setting.
Applicants seeking admission to a medical school should contact the schools that interest them for information on specific prerequisites and admission requirements.
- Course Requirements for Michigan Medical Schools (PDF)
- Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC)
- American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine (AACOM)
Michigan Medical Schools
- Michigan State University – College of Human Medicine
- Michigan State University – College of Osteopathic Medicine
- Central Michigan University – College of Medicine
- Western Michigan University – School of Medicine
- Oakland University – William Beaumont School of Medicine
- University of Michigan – U of M Medical School
- Wayne State University – School of Medicine
Dentistry is the branch of the healing arts and sciences devoted to maintaining the health of the teeth, gums and other hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity. A dentist is a scientist dedicated to the highest standards of health through prevention, diagnosis and treatment of oral diseases and conditions.
Approximately 79% of dentists engage in general practice. The American Dental Association currently recognizes nine dental specialties: dental public health, endodontics, oral and maxillofacial pathology, oral and maxillofacial radiology, oral and maxillofacial surgery, orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics, pediatric dentistry, periodontics and prosthodontics. Becoming a recognized specialist usually requires from one to four years of additional training beyond the dental degree.
Dental school is four years in length for general practice. At the end of four years, a graduate earns a D.D.S., Doctor of Dental Surgery or DMD, Doctor of Dental Medicine degree.
The minimum entrance requirement into a dental school is two years of college. The Council on Dental Education supports the acquisition of a baccalaureate degree prior to dental school enrollment. Applicants are required to complete the Dental Admission Test (DAT) as a prerequisite for admission. The majority of the U.S. colleges of dentistry participate in the centralized application service, AADSAS (The American Association of Dental Schools Application Service).
Applicants seeking admission to a dental school should contact the schools that interest them for information on specific prerequisites and admission requirements.
- Course Requirements for Michigan Dental Schools
- American Dental Association (ADA)
- American Dental Education Association (ADEA)
Michigan Dental Schools
Optometrists, or Doctors of Optometry are independent primary health care providers who specialize in the examination, diagnosis, treatment and management of diseases and disorders of the visual system, the eye and associated structures, as well as the diagnosis of related systemic conditions. Doctors of Optometry provide vision care by prescribing ophthalmic lenses, contact lenses, other optical aids and vision therapy.
Doctors of Optometry receive four years of specialized professional education and clinical training at an accredited school of optometry after completion of their undergraduate prerequisites.
The minimum entrance requirement for optometry school is three years of college. The majority of today’s optometry students have a bachelor’s degree. Student applicants are required to complete the Optometry Admission Test (OAT) as a prerequisite to admission. Applicants seeking admissions to an optometry program should contact those schools of interest for information on specific prerequisites and admission requirements.
- Course Requirements for Michigan Optometry School
- American Academy of Optometry (AAOPT)
- Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry (ASCO)
Michigan Optometry School
- Ferris State University – Michigan College of Optometry
Pharmacists are experts in the science of medications and the art of medication therapy. Pharmaceutical care encompasses the full range of pharmacist’s skills, knowledge and abilities in providing medication services to patients.
The principal goal of pharmaceutical care is to achieve definite outcomes from medication use which improves patients’ quality of life. These outcomes include: 1) cure of a disease; 2) elimination or reduction of symptoms; 3) arresting or slowing a disease process; 4) prevention of disease; 5) diagnosis of disease; and 6) desired alterations in physiological processes, all with minimal risk to patients.
A student must possess either the baccalaureate or the doctor of pharmacy (Pharm D) degree to qualify for the licensure examination. Please note, in July 1992, a majority of the nation’s schools and colleges of pharmacy voted to move toward awarding the Doctor of Pharmacy degree as the only professional degree in pharmacy.
The baccalaureate curriculum customarily requires a five year program of college study.
A Pharm D program customarily requires six years of college study. This includes 60 credit hours of pre-pharmacy study at a four year college or community college. A Pharm D program designed as a post baccalaureate program, generally exceeds six years of college study.
Admission to a pharmacy program is usually contingent upon successful completion of a pre- pharmacy curriculum. Many programs require their applicants to take the Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT). Applicants seeking admissions to a pharmacy program should contact those schools of interest for information on specific prerequisites and admission requirements.
- Course Requirements for Michigan Pharmacy Schools
- American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP)
Michigan Pharmacy Schools
- Ferris State University - College of Pharmacy
- University of Michigan – College of Pharmacy
- Wayne State University – College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Professions
Physician’s Assistant School
Physician assistants, under a physician’s supervision, perform many patient care tasks which were traditionally conducted by doctors. They may perform complete physical examinations, give treatment, and prescribe certain drugs and counsel patients on their health problems. While most PA programs train students for general medicine, there are special assistant programs, such as surgeon’s assistant and child health associate.
Admission to most programs requires a minimum of two years of college credits. More than half of the students who enroll in PA programs have at least one college degree. Training programs, given by community colleges, universities, medical schools and the military, are usually two years long and award a certificate, associate, bachelor’s or master’s degree. Applicants seeking admission to a physician assistant program should contact the schools of interest for information on specific prerequisites and admission requirements.
Admission to a physician assistant program generally requires volunteer or paid experience in a health care setting.
- Course Requirements for Michigan Physician’s Assistant Schools
- American Academy of Physician Assistants (AAPA)
Michigan Physician’s Assistant Schools
- Central Michigan University - Physician Assistant Program
- Grand Valley State University – Physician Assistant Department
- Eastern Michigan University – Physician Assistant Program
- University of Detroit Mercy – Physician Assistant Program
- Wayne State University – Physician Assistant Program
- Western Michigan University – Physician Assistant Program
Physical Therapy School
Physical therapists work with people who have been physically disabled by illness or accident or who are born with a handicap. As a member of the health care team, the physical therapist works to develop and deliver appropriate treatment programs for the relief of pain, prevention of deformity, improvement of strength, development of coordination and increase in functional ability. Treatment may involve exercise, in conjunction with the application of heat, cold, water, electricity, ultrasound, traction and/or massage. Their work is often closely coordinated with that of the Occupational Therapist, because both fields involve training patients to improve their motor abilities.
Physical therapy programs are post graduate programs. Preparation for entrance into a physical therapy education includes courses in psychology, biology, physics, statistics, chemistry, English, and humanities.
Post professional master’s degree programs for advanced professional physical therapy study are available at many institutions. A large number of universities also offer doctoral-level programs to prepare students for faculty and research positions in physical therapy or advanced clinical specialties.
Successful completion of a state-administered national exam is required to obtain licensure.
Applicants seeking admission to a physical therapy program should contact the schools they are interested in attending for information on specific prerequisites and admission requirements. Admission to a physical therapy program generally requires volunteer or paid experience in a health care setting.
- Course Requirements for Michigan Physical Therapy Schools
- American Physical Therapy Association (APTA)
Michigan Physical Therapy Schools
- Andrews University – Department of Physical Therapy
- Central Michigan University – Physical Therapy Program
- Grand Valley State University – Physical Therapy Department
- Oakland University – Program in Physical Therapy
- University of Michigan-Flint – Physical Therapy Department
- Wayne State University – Department of Physical Therapy
Public Health School
Graduates of the Schools of Public Health work primarily in the public sector in the areas of health promotion and disease prevention. They are distinct from other health professionals in that they are oriented to the community and prevention, rather than to curing individuals.
Employment opportunities are available at federal, state and local levels, particularly in health and environmental agencies. Additional employment options include private industry, universities and volunteer health organizations.
While there are dozens of specialties in public health, most career opportunities are found in Biostatistics, Epidemiology, Health Services Administration, Public Health Practice and Program Management, Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Occupational Safety and Health, Nutrition and Biomedical and Laboratory Practice.
Schools of Public Health are primarily graduate institutions and offer a variety of advanced degrees. All public health schools offer the Master of Public Health (MPH) and most offer the Master of Science (MS). Doctoral programs prepare graduates for teaching, research and upper-level administrative positions.
The length of the educational program varies with the individual institution, the type of degree sought, the area of specialization and the nature of a student’s prior experience in a health related field. Master’s degree programs take at least one year, but may require more than two. Doctoral programs generally require three or more years.
A few schools offer the baccalaureate degree in a limited number of public health areas. Students frequently return to a School of Public Health for advanced training.
Applicants seeking admission to a master’s or doctoral degree program should contact the schools of interest for information on specific prerequisites and admission requirements. Schools may require scores from one of the following admissions tests: Graduate Record Exam (GRE), the Graduate Management Aptitude Test (GMAT) or the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT).
Michigan Public Health Schools
- Michigan State University – Program in Public Health
- Grand Valley State University – School of Public Health
- University of Michigan – School of Public Health
- Wayne State University – Master of Public Health Degree
Podiatric medicine is a branch of the medical sciences devoted to the study of human movement with medical care of the foot and ankle as its primary focus.
A doctor of podiatric medicine (DPM) specializes in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of foot disorders resulting from injury or disease. A DPM makes independent judgments, prescribes medications and when necessary, performs surgery.
After completing four years of podiatric medical training, the podiatrist is required by most states to complete at least one year of postgraduate residency training. Podiatric medical students may select either a nonsurgical or a surgical-based residency program. Nonsurgical programs are generally one year in length. Surgically-based residencies vary in length from one to three years depending on the degree of expertise one wishes to develop.
State licensing requirements generally include graduation from an accredited college of podiatric medicine, passage of the National Board exams, postgraduate training and passage of state written and oral examinations.
The minimum admission requirement to a college of podiatric medicine is three years of college with specific science courses. A baccalaureate degree is strongly recommended. More than 90% of the applicants to podiatric school hold a bachelor’s degree. Applicants are required to complete the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) as a prerequisite for admission. Six of the seven U.S. colleges of podiatric medicine participate in AACPMAS (American Association of Colleges of Podiatric Medicine Application Service) centralized application service. Applicants seeking admission to a podiatry school should contact the schools they are interested in attending for information on specific prerequisites and admission requirements.
Chiropractic medicine is a branch of the healing arts, and as a science is based on the premise that good health depends in part, upon a normally functioning nervous system. The science of chiropractic holds as a basic tenet that a causative factor in many disease processes is improper nerve supply to the body organs or tissues.
The primary procedure in chiropractic health care is to examine and evaluate the spine and pelvis to determine if any one area of the spine is malfunctioning or if many areas of the spine are causing abnormal body movements. Four years of graduate-level work in a nationally accredited chiropractic college are required to earn a D.C., Doctor of Chiropractic.
Entrance into a Chiropractic School requires a minimum of two years or 60 semester credits of undergraduate study in a program leading to a baccalaureate degree in the arts and sciences. Applicants seeking admission to a chiropractic school should contact the schools that interest them for information on specific prerequisites and admission requirements.
Occupational Therapy School
Occupational therapy, a sub discipline of Rehabilitation Medicine, is the field of health care that helps disabled people of all ages learn or regain the skills they need to live independent, productive and satisfying lives. Therapists help those who are physically disabled learn daily living skills such as dressing, cooking or using transportation. Occupational therapists also assist those with emotional disabilities and mental illness learns to cope with the demands of daily living and to plan and structure work and leisure.
Occupational Therapy employs tools and materials rather than the mechanical aids used by Physical Therapists. Their work is often closely coordinated with that of the Physical Therapist, since both fields involve training patients to improve their motor abilities.
Occupational Therapists possess either a bachelor’s degree in occupational therapy, or a bachelor’s degree in a related area plus a master’s degree in Occupational Therapy. Practitioners are certified by a national examination.
Prerequisite coursework includes coursework in the biological and behavioral sciences, including biology, psychology and sociology. For a complete listing of courses, applicants should contact those schools they are interested in attending. Volunteer or paid work experience with individuals with disabilities. Applicants seeking admissions to an occupational therapy program should contact those schools of interest for information on specific prerequisites and admission requirements.
- Course Requirements for Michigan Occupational Therapy Schools
- American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA)
Michigan Occupational Therapy Schools
- Baker College of Flint – Baker College of Flint
- Eastern Michigan University – Department of Associated Health Professions
- Grand Valley State University – Occupational Therapy Department
- Saginaw Valley State University – Pre-Occupational Therapy Program
- Wayne State University – College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Professions
- Western Michigan University – Occupational Therapy Program